Infertility is a term referring to a couple trying to conceive but whose efforts prove unsuccessful after one year of regular sexual intercourse without precautions.
- Infertility is a serious medical and social problem, the incidence of which has increased over the last decades in industrial countries.
- It is age-dependent (increases by age), and 30-35% of the couples aged 30 years and over encounter infertility problems.
- It is a problem that affects the couple and not one partner alone.
- In 50% of the cases, the man has the problem (male infertility)
- Hormonal disorders: due to either a functional disorder of the thyroid gland, or hormonal failure or disorder, or congenital syndromes
- Urinary tract infections: prostatitis, epididymitis and orchitis can have an impact on the quality of the sperm. If treated, usually the infertility problem is successfully addressed
- Congenital anomalies: refers to gene mutations or chromosomal anomalies which are responsible for specific conditions and syndromes
- Immunology factors: these constitute a special class in the field of male infertility. A rupture of the blood-testis barrier induced by an infection, trauma or surgical procedure, allows the stimulation of the immune system and the formation of antisperm antibodies.
- Increased scrotal temperature: due to working conditions or varicocele
- Other factors, such as: diabetes mellitus, intake of specific medication, erectile dysfunction, radiation exposure, testicular cancer and cryptorchidism, can significantly affect the sperm quality.