Cryptorchidism is the condition where the testicle does not fully descend during its natural course from the kidney and thus is not palpable in the scrotum.
- It is one of the most common congenital anomalies present at birth.
- According to the age of the infant, cryptorchidism frequency rates range from 1 to 5%.
- It mainly occurs in the right testicle, with the right to left testicle ratio being 70%: 30%.
The causes are not well-defined, yet the following factors are suspected:
- Mechanical causes
- Hormonal causes
- Endogenous testicular damage
- A combination of the above
Timely diagnosis and early management of the disease before the infant turns two is quite important to prevent permanent histological damages in the testicle.
For this reason, the following are used:
- Hormonal therapy (the success rate amounts to 20%, however 1/5 of the cases will manifest relapse)
- Surgical treatment (the success rate is 70-92%)