The testicles, or testes, are the reproductive glands of the man.
They weigh 20-30 grams and, in healthy adults, their volume is 18cm3.
They are inside a lose bag of skin called scrotum.
Their primary function is to produce sperm (spermatogenesis) and hormones, mainly testosterone.
All scrotum functions are controlled by hormones secreted from the pituitary gland.
The most significant testicular diseases are:
- Testicular torsion: this causes an obstruction to the vessels ending in the testicle and may result in organ necrosis.
- Testicular cancer
- Hydrocele: due to fluid accumulation between the layers surrounding the testicle
- Varicocele: this refers to the dilation of the testicular veins and may compromise spermatogenesis